Information in the menus below was updated in November 2021. To contribute information that may be of interest to others in your country, please contact your country’s hosts: Carolina Gonzálvez ( or Fernando Marhuenda (  

  • People, groups, and organizations

    Not for profit

    • The IMERIS Association works with the mission of providing specialized attention and intervention to minors and families in situations of social and / or family conflict. Thus, from the Program of Prevention, Monitoring and Control of School Absenteeism, mediation is carried out between the Educational Center, the students and the family system.
    • The El Fanal Association seeks the personal and social development of families at risk of exclusion. They work to achieve a society in which everyone has the right to develop their personal and social skills - in equality and freedom - through education, employment and the exercise of citizenship. Among other programs, they have a project on prevention of school absenteeism.
    • The Spanish Association of Second Chance Schools gathers different associations all throughout the country which offer educational resources and a connection to the labor market to facilitate transitions and to assist with educational support through the adolescence as well as in achieving proper education. It has developed an accreditation process to certify which institutions comply with the requirements set by the association in order to extend their model.
    • In the region of Valencia, several institutions have been working for quite a long time to prepare youth who left the school to obtain the GCSE attending the open examinations set by the Department of Adult Education of the region. These are institutions like Taleia, belonging to Adsis, Asindown, or Iniciatives Solidàries, some of them well renowned even at national level.
    • Several research groups in Spanish universities cover research on early school leaving, school failure, absenteeism and transitions from education into work. From a sociological perspective, the one with the longest tradition is GRET, located at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. In that same university there is also the group GEPS, with a wider overview but recent research on early school leaving. From a pedagogical perspective, there are at least two groups, Transicions at the University of Valencia and the group EIC at the University of the Balearic Islands, with a tradition in research on VET and early school leaving and research also in the Peninsula. The same applies to the group EIE, at the University of Murcia, whose work is on vulnerability and exclusion/social and educational inclusion.
    • Since the start of the Covid-19 crisis, several institutions have moved their academic and emotional support to online:
  • Current and upcoming activities and achievements
  • Past activities and achievements
  • Helpful links and other resources
    • European Social Fund in Spain, 2010-2012, Network to combat early school leaving, study on early school leaving in the region of Castilla la Mancha.
    • Compilation of Good Municipal Practices in the Prevention and Attention of School Absenteeism and bullying (2018). Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Link to downland: Prevention and care of school absenteeism and bullying
    • The Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale Revised for children:
      • Gonzálvez, C., Inglés, C. J., Kearney, C. A., Vicent, M., Sanmartín, R., & García-Fernández, J. M. (2016). School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Factorial Invariance and Latent Means Differences across Gender and Age in Spanish Children. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-10.
      • For access to this article or the Spanish translations in other countries such as Chile (Gonzálvez et al., 2017) and Ecuador (Gonzálvez et al., 2018), please contact Carolina Gonzálvez
    • Spanish publications on the Cedefop VET toolkit website for tackling early school leaving.
    • COVID-TECA on education.
    • Research on children and youth in lockdown.
    • Unicef Spain: Impact of Covid-19 upon most vulnerable children and youth.
    • Spanish-language articles, books and chapter books about school refusal:
      • Cerdà-Navarro, A., Salvà-Mut, F., Comas-Forgas, R. & Morey-López, M. (2020). Natives and immigrants enrolled in Spanish Intermediate vocational education and training: a comparative study. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 25(3), 295-317, DOI:10.1080/13596748.2020.1802942
      • Cruz-Orozco, J.I. (2020). Absentismo escolar en España: datos y reflexiones. Contextos educativos, 26, 121-135.
      • Delgado, B., Martínez-Monteagudo, M.C., Ruiz-Esteban, C. y Rubio, E. (2019). Latent class analysis of school refusal behavior and its relationship with cyberbullying during adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1916. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01916
      • Escarbajal, A., Izquierdo, T. y Abenza, B. (2019). El absentismo escolar en contextos vulnerables de exclusión [School absenteeism in vulnerable contexts of exclusión]. Revista de Currículum y Formación de Profesorado, 23(1), 121-139. doi:10.30827/profesorado.v23i1.9147
      • FEMP (2019). IV Catálogo de buenas prácticas municipales en la prevención e intervención frente al absentismo y el acoso escolar. Madrid, FEMP.
      • Fernández, O., Goñi, E., Ortiz, I., Zubeldia, M. (2019). Ajuste escolar y autoconcepto académico en la educación secundaria. Revista de investigación educativa, 37(1), 163-179.
      • Fernández, O, Ramos, E., Goñi, E., Rodríguez, A. (2020). The role of social support in school adjustment during secondary education. Psicothema, 32(1), 100-107.
      • García, M., Sánchez, A. (2020). La heterogeneidad del abandono educativo en las transiciones postobligatorias. Itinerarios y subjetividad de la experiencia escolar. Papers: revista de sociología, 105(2), 235-257.
      • Gómez-Núñez, M.I., Peña, F., Inglés, C.J. (2020). Rechazo, ansiedad y absentismo escolar. En Inglés, C.J. y Ruiz, C. Manual para psicólogos educativos: teoría y prácticas. Madrid: Pirámide.
      • Giménez-Urraco, E. y Marhuenda, F. (2012). Fracaso, absentismo y abandono escolar reconocer los límites del sistema para corregir y ofrecer alternativas que garanticen el derecho a la educación [Failure, absenteeism and school dropout recognize the limits of the system to correct and offer alternatives that guarantee the right to education]. In M. A. Manzanares (coord.), Educational themes in the spotlight (pp. 187-220). Madrid: Wolters Kluwer España.
      • González-González, M. T. & Bernárdez-Gómez, A. (2019). Elementos y aspectos del centro escolar y su relación con la desafección de los estudiantes. [Elements and aspects of the school and its relationship with the disaffection of students]. Revista de Investigación en Educación, 17(1), 5-19.
      • González-González, M. T. & San Fabián, J. L. (2018). Buenas prácticas en medidas y programas para jóvenes desenganchados de lo escolar [Best practices for measures and programs for school disengaged young people]. Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 16(1), 41-60. doi: 10.15366/reice2018.16.1.003
      • Gonzálvez, C., Inglés, C. J., & García-Fernández, J. M. (2018). No quiero ir al colegio. El niño que rechaza la escuela [I do not want to go to school. The child who rejects school]. Madrid: Pirámide.
      • Moyano, M., Ramírez, A., Martos, M. D. y Anguita, V. (2017). El absentismo escolar en Andalucía (España): balance y propuestas de futuro en el marco de la Unión Europea [The truancy in Andalusia (Spain): balance and proposals for the future within the framework of the European Union]. Opción, 84, 65-90.
      • Romero, E., Alcaraz, S., Hernández, M. (2020). Desigualdades educativas y respuesta institucional. Una investigación desde la perspectiva territorial. Profesorado, 24(1), 22-48.
      • Romero, E., Hernández, M. (2019). Análisis de las causas endógenas y exógenas del abandono escolar temprano: una investigación cualitativa. Educación XXI, 22(1), 263-293.
      • Ruiz, A.C., Palma, M.O. (2019). Preventions of early school leaving. Contributions from social work. Prospectiva: revista de trabajo e intervención social, 27, 139-158.
      • Salvá, F., Cerdá, A., Sureda, J. (2019). The promotion of educational success in intermediate level VET: The case of the Balearic islands. In F. Marhuenda Fluixá (ed.), The School-Based Vocational Education and Training System in Spain, 167-186.
    • Monograph on social anxiety disorder, social phobia, and psychoeducational variables. This special issue will publish manuscripts about school refusal, absenteeism and truancy, European Journal of Education and Psychology. Deadline is May 1, 2022. 
    • Monograph on school attendance problems, European Journal of Education and Psychology, 2019. 
    • Monograph on the profile of youth attending second chance schools in Spain, 2021, 
    • Monograph on reengagement, Educatio siglo XXI, 2020. 
    • Guide to prevent early school leaving, 2020. It includes examples of good practice 
    • Impact of the Covid-19 crisis on Roma population, 2020. 

Disclaimer: INSA’s Mission encourages us to disseminate as much readily available information as possible, without judgement. The sharing of this information should not be seen as an endorsement by INSA. People, groups, and organisations are separated into ‘for profit’ (fees are charged for services) and ‘not for profit’ (including charities, who may charge no fees or nominal fees for services). Please access and use this information with proper judgement.

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